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Tongue in Disease Medical Diagnosis- healthyinfo.org
Tongue in Disease Medical Diagnosis


The tongue is a muscular body organ related to the function of deglutition, preference as well as speech. It works as a quickly accessible organ for the evaluation of wellness of an individual as well as reveals the state of hydration of the body. It is claimed that tongue is the mirror of the intestinal system and any uncommon performance of the tummy as well as intestinal tracts will be reviewed the tongue.

Some characteristic modifications take place in the tongue in some specific diseases. That is why the examination of the tongue is quite vital as well as will certainly offer some hints for diagnosis. All medical professionals examine the tongue and also they consider the adjustments in size, form, colour, dampness, layer, nature of papillae and also movements, etc.

The appearance of tongue in some unusual problems:

1) Movements of the tongue:

a) In one side, paralysis of the body(hemiplegia) tongue relocates towards the paralysed side when protruded.

b) The tremulous activity of the tongue is seen in conditions like thyrotoxicosis, delirium tremens and parkinsonism. Tremor is also seen in worried people.

c) In dynamic bulbar palsy, there will be squandering and paralysis of the tongue with fibrillation. Eventually, the tongue obtains shrivelled and exists functionless in the flooring of the mouth. This problem is related to dribbling of spit as well as loss of speech.

d) In chorea (uncontrolled rhythmic motions) the client might not have the ability to maintain the protruded tongue in rest, it will certainly be relocating unwillingly.

2) The moistness of the tongue:

The moistness of the tongue provides some indicator concerning the state of hydration of the body. Water quantity deficiency leads to peripheral circulatory problem qualified by weakness, thirst, uneasiness, anorexia, nausea, throwing up, completely dry and also parched tongue.

Dryness of the tongue is seen in following problems.

a) Diarrhoea.
b) Later phases of extreme illness.
c) Advanced uraemia.
d) Hypovolemic shock.
e) Heat exhaustion.
f) Hyponatraemia.
g) Acute intestinal obstruction.
h) Starvation.
i) Prolonged fasting.

3) Change in colour of tongue:

a) Central cyanosis:
Cyanosis is the bluish discoloration of the mucous membrane layer as a result of lower of oxygen in the blood. This is seen in cardiac arrest, breathing failure as well as in anoxia. In cyanosis tongue, lips become light blue.

b) Jaundice:
This is the yellow-colored discolouration of all mucous surface areas of the body (consisting of the tongue) due to enhancing of bilirubin in the blood. Jaundice is seen in hepatitis, bile duct blockage, boosted the damage of RBCs, etc.

c) Advanced uremia:
This is the increase of urea and also other nitrogenous waste products in the blood as a result of kidney failure. Here the tongue becomes brown in colour.

d) Ketoacidosis:
This is the acidosis with the build-up of ketone bodies seen mostly in diabetes mellitus. Here the tongue ended up being brown with a regular ketone smell from the mouth.

e) Riboflavin deficiency:
Deficiency of this vitamin (vitamin B2) produces the magenta colour of the tongue with pain and crevices of lips.

f) Niacin shortage:
Deficiency of niacin (vitamin B3) as well as other B-complex vitamins result in brilliant scarlet or sturdy red tongue.

g) Anaemia:
It is the decline in haemoglobin percentage of the blood. In serious anaemia, tongue ends up being pale.

4) The coating on the tongue:

a) Bad breath:
The main reason for bad breath is the development of a pasty finish (biography movie) on the tongue which lodges thousands of anaerobic bacteria leading to the production of offensive gases. Those who complain concerning halitosis may have a thick covering on the posterior part of the tongue.

b) Typhoid fever:
In typhoid fever tongue becomes white coloured like hair.

c) Candidiasis;
It is a fungal infection which impacts the mucous surface areas of the body. On the tongue, there will be discarding white sores.

d) In diabetes mellitus as well as hypoadrenalism there will certainly be sloughing white sores.

e) Secondary syphilis:
Syphilis is a sexually transferred diseased triggered by Treponema pallidum infection. In the additional phase of this condition, we could see mucous spots which are pain-free, smooth white glistening opalescent plaques which could not be scraped off easily.

f) Leukoplakia:
Here white keratotic patches are seen on the tongue and dental cavity. This is a precancerous condition.

g) AIDS:
In these clients, hairy leukoplakia is seen.

h) Peritonitis:
It is the swelling of the peritoneum (inner covering of abdominal cavity which likewise covers the guts and also maintain them in location) in this problem there is white furring of the tongue.

i) Acute ailment:
Furring is likewise seen in some acute illness.

5) Papillae:

These are small estimates on the tongue related to taste. There are different sort of papillae on the healthy and balanced tongue. In some conditions, there are some unusual adjustments which are complying with.

a) Hairy tongue:
This problem is due to prolongation of filiform papillae seen in bad dental hygiene, general debility and also acid indigestion.

b) Geographic tongue:
Below uneven red, as well as white patches, show up on the tongue. These sores resemble a geographical map. The exact source is not known.

c) Median rhomboid glossitis:
In this condition, there is a smooth nodular red area in the posterior midline of the tongue. This is a congenital problem.

d) Nutritional shortage:
In nutritional deficiency, there is glossitis(inflammation of tongue) bring about papillary hypertrophy followed by atrophy.

e) Benign migratory glossitis:
It is an inflammatory condition of the tongue where some annular locations of desquamation of papillae appear on the tongue which shifts from location to location in few days.

f) Thiamine and also riboflavin deficiency:
Shortage of these vitamins trigger hypertrophied filiform and also fungiform papillae.

g) Niacin and iron deficiency:
In this problem, there is atrophy of papillae. A smooth tongue is encountered in iron shortage.

h) Vitamin deficiency:

This triggers furrowed tongue.

i) In dietary megaloblastic anaemia, the tongue becomes smooth.

j) Folic acid shortage:

Below macrocytic megaloblastic anaemia with glossitis is seen.

k) Cyanocobalamine shortage:

Here glossitis with macrocytic megaloblastic anaemia as well as outer neuropathy is encountered.

l) Scarlet high temperature;

In this streptococcal infection, there are brilliant red papillae sticking out of a thick white fur, later on, the white layer disappears leaving enlarged papillae on the bright red surface area and also is called strawberry tongue.

6) Ulcers on the tongue:

a) Aphthous abscess:
These are round excruciating ulcers show up in stressed out individuals regularly. May be associated with types of food allergy. Usual sites are tongue, lips, oral mucosa, etc.

b) Herpes simplex:
It is an intense vesicular eruption produced by herpes simplex virus. When these blisters burst, it forms an abscess.

c) Ulcer in cancer cells:
Cancerous ulcers have everted sides with a hard base. Bleeding is additionally seen. Cancer of the tongue is common in tobacco chewers.

d) Syphilitic abscess:
Syphilitic fissures are longitudinal in direction. In main syphilis, additional genital chancre is seen on the tongue. In secondary syphilis, several superficial ulcers are seen on the under surface area and also sides of the tongue. In tertiary syphilis, gamma may be seen on the midline of the dorsum of the tongue.

e) Dental ulcers:
These abscesses are created by sharp edges of rancid teeth.

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